Definitions & Statistics

Definitions and Statistics
Approximately 1.7 million people experience a traumatic brain injury every year in the United States. As a result of advances in medical treatment, more than 80% survive.

More than 5.3 million Americans have suffered a traumatic brain injury.

TBI costs the United States more than $60 billion a year.

Closed Head Injury – the skull is intact and there is no penetration of the skull. Direct or indirect force to the head can cause this type of injury.

Contusion – a bruise to a part of the brain. Like a bruise on the body, this is bleeding into the tissue.

Concussion – type of traumatic brain injury that is caused by a blow to the head or body, a fall, or another injury that jars or shakes the brain inside the skull. Although there may be cuts or bruises on the head or face, there may be no other visible signs of a brain injury.

Diffuse Injury – diffuse cellular injury to the brain from rapid rotational movement.
This is often seen in motor vehicle accidents or shaking injuries.

Open Head Injury – penetration of the skull with direct injury to the head.

Penetrating Trauma – any object that enters the brain. Causes direct injury by impact and pushing skull fragments into the brain.

Secondary Injury – swelling and release of chemicals that promote inflammation and cell injury or death. This causes swelling in the brain which may increase the intracranial pressure and prevent the cerebrospinal fluid from draining out of the skull. This causes further increase in pressure and brain damage.

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