Approximately 270,000 people experience a traumatic brain injury
every year in the United States. As a result of advances in medical
treatment, more than 85% survive.
More than 5 million Americans have
suffered a traumatic brain injury.
TBI costs the United States more
than $48 billion a year.
Closed Head Injury - the skull is intact
and there is no penetration of the skull. Direct or indirect
force to the head can cause
this type of injury.
Open Head Injury - penetration of the
skull with direct injury to the head.
Diffuse Injury - diffuse
cellular injury to the brain from rapid rotational movement.
is often seen in motor vehicle
accidents or shaking injuries.
Contusion - a bruise to
a part of the brain. Like a bruise on the body, this is bleeding
into the tissue.
Penetrating Trauma - any object that enters the
brain. Causes direct injury by impact and pushing skull
Secondary Injury - swelling and release
of chemicals that promote inflammation and cell injury or death.
in the brain which may increase the intracranial
pressure and prevent
the cerebrospinal fluid from draining out of
the skull. This causes further increase in pressure